CHILDHOOD CANCER MENU
• What is cancer?
• Diagnosis and tests
Acute Lymphblastic Leukaemia
Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
Germ Cell Tumours
Soft Tissure Sarcoma
• Side effects
• Beyond treatment
• Facts and Statistics
The above pages are intended to back up the information you get from the hospital, not to replace medical advice from a consultant.
About Childhood Cancer
When a child is diagnosed with cancer it can seem like normal life stops and a different journey begins. It’s a journey that tests families physically, emotionally, socially and financially. To be told that a child has cancer comes as a terrible shock. Yet to know that seven out of 10 children now survive cancer may offer some kind of comfort and reassurance to families. Thanks to research into treatment and causes, the outlook is now one of hope, forward thinking and positive outcomes.
Cancer may be a word that parents never expect to associate with their child. So learning that a child has cancer often comes as a terrible shock. At first parents may feel numb, unable to take in the news. Or their minds may race ahead to thoughts of whether the child will survive. What most parents need to reassure them is clear, factual information about children and cancer.
We understand that this can be a very confusing time. If you have questions, concerns or simply feel you would like someone to talk to - please do not hesitate to contact us - we will be happy to help. You can call our Care Grants and Respite Breaks Officer, Vicky on 01708 734366 or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
What is cancer?
Cancer is a disease of the cells. The body contains over two hundred different types of cell so there are also over two hundred different forms of cancer that occur if a particular cell type 'goes wrong'.
A normal cell grows and reproduces according to the strict instructions:
1. If it becomes damaged, it dies.
2. It reproduces a limited number of times before dying.
3. It responds to chemical messages from other cells which tell it what to do.
4. If it travels to the wrong place in the body, it dies.
Cancer occurs when a single cell divides (makes a copy of itself) but 'goes wrong' and produces an abnormal cell. If the abnormal cell continues to divide and does not die, it has become a cancer cell. It has the potential to spread throughout the body although it does not always do this.
There are two main types of cancer:
1. Solid cancers/tumours are when an abnormal cell divides rapidly and a lump forms.
2. Leukaemias and lymphomas are caused when the blood cells divide and multiply abnormally.
What is the difference between benign and malignant tumours?
A benign tumour is non-cancerous, which means they do not have the ability to spread to other parts of the body. They can cause a problem if they grow too large and press on surrounding parts of the body, interfering with the way they work.
A malignant tumour is cancerous. These tumours can spread to other parts of the body. These are called 'metastases', where the original cancer has 'metastasised'. It is the ability to spread that is the difference between the cells in a benign and malignant tumour. Many doctors use the word ‘malignant’ to mean cancer.
Malignant tumours are classified according to how far they have spread in the body (their stage) and by the type of cancer cells they contain (their grade).